Originated in England and Wales, which became one country with the Act of Union (1536) shortly after the English Reformation officially commenced with the Act of Supremacy (1534). More than any other, the Anglican Reformation is determined in its ecclesiastical direction by the ruling elite. Lutheran and Reformed Reformations did work in tandem with the political power, but the spiritual direction was largely in the hand of the reformers. Henry VIII (1509-1547) largely set the direction for the Reformation (as he did for just about everything else in his kingdom). Largely, because the moderate Elizabeth I (r.1558-1603) was the longest serving Tudor monarch, the Anglican Reformation settled into a compromise between Catholic and Protestant elements. Its distinguishing mark is not its theology, but its liturgy, which was itself a blend of new Protestant ideas and earlier English liturgies. The main liturgical reformer was Thomas Cranmer, whose influence remains evident in the Book of Common Prayer.
This was described by 19th Century German Protestant historians as the Counter Reformation and that unfortunate term continues in use today at a popular level.. It should not be used by good church history students as it ignores that fact that there was a reforming movement within Catholicism that did not support Protestantism. Indeed, the main reformers all began as Catholics and so the Catholic Reformation gave birth to the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Reformers were the successors of the concilliar movement that had sought in the 15th century to reform the church by claiming that church councils had greater authority than the pope. The Catholic Reformation sought both greater intellectual integrity through Humanists like Desiderius Erasmus and Sir Thomas More and less intellectual spirituality, such as in the mysticism of St Teresa of Avila.
The first Protestant Reformation, springing from the reforming work of Martin Luther, a Augustinian friar and theologian. Luther's naturally conservative approach helped to create a distinctive form of Protestantism in which secular and ecclesiastical powers co-existed for each others benefit, rather than one or other having the upper hand. His conservatism also inspired the ultimate victory of a reasonably Catholic church, although this split the movement since the time of Melancthon. Lutheranism became tolerated within the Empire after the Peace of Augsburg, but it gradually lost ground to the Calvinism.
These were a collection of Reformations that went well beyond what Reformed
leaders were prepared to propose. The two main strands were Anabaptists
and Unitarians: the former rejected infant baptism and the latter rejected
the doctrine of the Trinity. There is little unity among the Radicals so
that it is hard to sum up their beliefs, but in general there was a willingness
to be radical in all things, including support for polygamy and political
revolution. In general, the Radicals worked either outside or against the
prevailing political structures, but there was a Unitarian state church in Transylvania.
I am using the term Reformed to refer to those Reformations that followed through a more thorough-going Biblical reform of church life, without going as far as the Radicals. The two main forms are based in origin on the cities of Zurich and Geneva (the latter was not originally in Switzerland). Its distinctive features are a stronger emphasis on scripture alone and an attempt to create a Reformed theocracy. In its (later) Calvinist/Genevan form this became the dominant group within Protestantism by the end of the century.